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Content - Research Funding
Public Research Funding
Funding for the policy mission oriented R&D for projects in the fields of life sciences, environment, energy, materials and nanotechnology, ICT, frontier fields, manufacturing, and social infrastructure comprises the bulk of public research funding.
In 2009 this was €14b and is funded by through the ministries and research funding organisations. Other types of funding, totaling €1.3b is for competitive projects.
The three main funding organisations in Japan are the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO).
The JSPS and JST principally fund academic research, the JSPS chiefly in a "bottom-up" fashion, whilst the JST selects topics and issues calls in those areas, mostly in academic areas that may be of benefit for technology development. NEDO, which funds industrial R&D through networks and partnerships, largely operates along similar lines to the JST in how it issues calls and determines research projects.
The main funding mechanism for competitively allocated research grants is the Grant-in-Aid scheme operated by the JSPS. This has an annual call in the Autumn for all fields of the natural, social sciences and humanities, with special application streams for younger researchers (those under 42 years old), special research areas, and programmes for small groups working in advanced areas.The acceptance ratio for the Grant-in-Aid scheme is 24% (JSPS 2009).
Funding programmes in which researchers or research teams are competitively selected but in response to calls either on pre-determined themes or on particular programmes with specific objectives are both numerically more common and comprise a larger proportion of the overall competitive research budget. For instance, the JST issues such calls under its ERATO scheme, or for international collaboration in set areas through its SICP scheme.
The greatest recipient of competitive funds are the national universities, the independent administrative institutions, the private universities, and private industry.
New Energy Development Corporation - NEDO www.nedo.go.jp/english/
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JSPS www.jsps.go.jp/english/
Japan Science and Technology Agency - JST http://www.jst.go.jp/EN/
(Quelle: ERAWATCH Research Inventory Report: JAPAN)